By Ernie Kulhanek
English Department
Delaware Technical Community College
Stanton Campus

Welcome back to the online book club discussion of Teaching Naked, by Dr. José Bowen. Last time we reviewed the Preface of the book; today we will jump right in with the first three chapters. These chapters are clustered together as Part I: The Digital Landscape.

Chapter 1: The Flat Classroom and Global Competition

In Chapter 1, Bowen acknowledges that eLearning is not just unique to education. Because this method has been around for a long time, and is employed in nearly every sector (including business, government and medicine), people have come to expect what eLearning offers–that is, individualized help, mastery-based tutorials, immediate and convenient feedback , as well as free online options. Bowen says

The point here is not that online learning is better, but it is here. Outside of traditional higher education, online resources have been transformative: you can already become a pilot, pharmacist, veterinarian, lawyer or rabbi online. With other industries believing that learning can take place on a flat screen, online learning challenges higher education’s traditional course delivery model and its ability to increase tuition. (p.9)

This quote is important because, according to Bowen, higher education is one of the few remaining industries in which the price of admission doesn’t fully cover the cost of the service. Students (and potential students, of course) do not want to hear this, particularly in the current era of outrageous tuition costs. But how can colleges give students what they want, which is a cheap (or free) education available even to those who never step foot on campus, and continue to be solvent?

Another point Bowen raises is the inevitability of competition. This section read like a warning to all higher education employees. He draws an analogy to the automobile industry of 1970s Detroit. When the established (American) brands were dominant they did not worry about new, and inferior, competition. When new car companies entered the market (Honda, Toyota, Datsun), the established brands convinced themselves that no one would want to buy these foreign, cheaper, more efficient cars for two reasons:

First, when you are surrounded by existing technology that works you are less likely to see the value in innovation.

Second, no one is scared of brands without name recognition until they are established and begin rolling out luxury brands. Bowen goes on to say that “The University of Phoenix is already the world’s largest university and may be the Honda of our age. What will its Acura look like?” (p. 13)

Online Education

At this point in the chapter, all of the “yeah, but” statements flooded my mind. I am sure you are at the same point. “Yeah, but the University of Phoenix does not offer the same quality of education as the University of Delaware, let alone Harvard.”

This is undoubtedly true, at least for now. Bowen admits that in today’s environment, students are “learning for credentials.” In other words, yes students pay more to go to a more prestigious institution, but they are not paying for the education, they are paying for the name on the top of the diploma. However, in order for this to continue to be true, these pricier institutions have to prove they offer more than other, cheaper options. Bowen says that parents, students, and legislators are calling for increased accountability in higher education.

While proponents of the traditional model argue that cheap, online degrees offered by for-profit universities have to prove they can educate as well as traditional institutions, everyone else (in this case, consumers) is saying that traditional colleges and universities need to prove that their more expensive way of doing things truly is superior.

One thing that seems certain is that the current pricing structure of higher education will not survive. In the past, students have viewed education like wine: if it costs more, it must be better. Obviously this is not always true. But even if it were, there will come a point where the perceived stigma of an online education is worth the savings of an overpriced, yet traditionally valued, education.

Will the college bubble replace the housing bubble this country has just moved through? Eventually, probably. Until that happens, or in order to keep that from happening, traditional colleges must create value. The value of a liberal arts education is the critical thinking skills one learns. Thus, developing critical thinking skills should be the number one goal for faculty at liberal arts schools. If this is the case, then higher education should be structured around delivery of content. Yet most college professors have no formal preparation for teaching. Is this wise? Bowen argues that

We need to adjust our classrooms to focus less on content and more on application of material to new contexts, development of intellectual curiosity, investment in the material, evaluation, synthesis, challenging personal beliefs, development of higher-level cognitive processing, oral and written communication skills, construction and negotiation of meaning, information literacy, connection of information across disciplines, teamwork, and reflection on the significance of content. (p. 21)

Now, as an instructor who literally teaches a course called “Critical Thinking and Academic Writing,” this sounds perfectly reasonable to me. In fact, Bowen’s list reads like the table of contents for my textbook. But not every instructor is in the same position. Do you agree with Bowen when he says that we should focus less on content and more on critical thinking?

Consider this – Bowen’s central argument is that delivery of content is already being done more cheaply and conveniently online. What are we offering students when we say we have content knowledge when the internet has the same content knowledge available on-demand, and mostly for free? To remain valuable, traditional higher education institutions need to focus on training students to be the sorts of critical thinkers that employers, and the public at large, insist on having. In order to do this, any college “outside of the top 20 brands” needs better pedagogy.

Bowen closes the first chapter with the four current business models for higher education:

Free model: This model will survive because major universities, governments and philanthropists are willing to support it.

Elite university model: Here education is not the point – the brand name is. This model will survive due to the power of alumni networking.

For-profit and community college model: This model is flexible, convenient and results oriented. This will survive because potential students demand it and are willing to pay for what they want.

Traditional colleges without an elite brand: These colleges are too expensive and inconvenient. This model must adapt or perish.

The good news is that he thinks the community college model (which I think we can all agree is important to this institution) will survive, provided we remain valuable by offering students what they cannot get elsewhere cheaper or more conveniently.

Chapter 2: Social Proximity and the Virtual Classroom

Chapter 2 discusses how professors and instructors should view virtual communities and e-communication. Bowen argues that students no longer depend on physical proximity to develop and nurture relationships due to the rise of on-line social networking as a communication tool. He argues that this is not necessarily a good thing by saying “Time for reflection and interaction is a casualty of the digital age, and one of the primary goals of higher education should be to reclaim this time” (p. 27).

Here is where Bowen begins to outline his plan to use technology to demonstrate the true value of a traditional, face-to-face institution. He argues that traditional higher education institutions should reclaim this valuable time by extending class time by reaching students wherever and whenever they are, paradoxically using the same technology that is competing with the traditional model.

This idea struck me as very interesting and applicable to my situation as an instructor at a community college. Creating a community of learners is difficult for community colleges where students do not live, eat, sleep, or socialize in close physical proximity. We should understand the value of texting, skype, Facebook, twitter, etc. in creating a virtual social community that can then overlap with an online academic community that helps to shape student culture and influence student learning.

Social Learning

In order to do this, we as faculty need to embrace this method of communication. When we are loathe to embrace the digital lifestyle of our students, we communicate to them that our courses lack value and relevancy to their lives. We also need to understand how to use emerging technology because it is a 21st century skill. Doing things the old way is not always better. When I talk to fellow educators, it is this idea that generally gets people upset. However, consider the medical community. How many of us would like our doctors and hospitals to use methods developed decades ago simply because “the old way of doing things worked just fine”?

Furthermore, e-communication bridged the gap of power differential between students and teachers. Students are afraid of teachers because they feel powerless. But if they fear us, how can they learn from us? One way of removing fear is to demonstrate that we are not outdated robots. Surprise! We too are people. In their minds, people do certain things. People text, tweet, play games on their phones, and post to Facebook and Twitter accounts. If you do none of this, how can you possibly be a person? Also – how can we expect to be taken seriously when we critique their methods of communication and way of life if we do not understand it?

Beyond being viewed as a person and understanding this new generation, Bowen argues there are economic and curricular implications of embracing this type of proximity. The potential for an increase in faculty-student interaction is tremendous. More does not necessarily mean better, but the opportunity for more practice and application is there. This could have an enormous impact on adjuncts. Students take online classes because they can be living anywhere in the world while taking a class from their particular institution. Imagine being able to teach for universities set in cities which you have never even visited. Bowen’s point about this new phase in higher education is that “getting the balance of humanity and technology right is everyone’s new mission,” particularly if we want to serve our students in a sustainable way (p. 49).

Chapter 3: Games, Customization, and Learning

Chapter 3 was an eye opening chapter for me. Bowen says that video games are now the world’s most common teacher. In fact, one study he cited states that 99% of all teenage boys and 94% of all teenage girls play video games regularly (p. 62). If so many people are being taught by video games, shouldn’t we should really be paying attention to how they are being taught? Gaming’s most valuable attribute is customization. Players are offered a variety of choices as they work their way through the game.

In today’s environment, students view themselves as customers, and after all, the customer is always right. “Have it your way” does not just apply to ordering from Burger King anymore. The annoyance of students’ demand for customer service is felt strongly by some faculty. De-valuing education by likening it to any other transaction does not sit well with a population that has dedicated its life to the more romantic aspects of the process. However, I wonder if there are benefits to approaching education this way?


Bowen says that “games are just an endless series of tests, a constant stream of problem solving and assessment” (p. 59). I have spent many hours playing video games, in addition to hours writing and grading tests, and I can say that I personally agree with this premise. So maybe education should be accomplished through gaming and customization. After all, the learning principles of games – customization (allows different types of people to play), risk taking (low consequences for failure), performance before competence (no instruction manual or textbook), pleasant frustration (challenging but surmountable), interaction (gives immediate feedback), agency and identity (see the value), situated meetings (learning in context), on demand (delivers information when gamers need it to apply immediately) – are all conducive to what I am trying to get my classroom to look like.

Not only that, but the skills that games offer to those who master it – systems thinking, sequential problem solving, lateral thinking, distributed knowledge, cross functional teams and production – are the exact 21st century skills that employers want their employees to have (pp. 59-61). Isn’t my job supposed to be helping students gain these skills?

Bowen closes the section by stating

Technology is taking us in two directions at once. The explosion of information has created a wealth of primary data that is a wonderful resource for learning activities. But the trend toward less quantity and more customized information increases the importance of authority (who is doing the customization), and it also provides an opportunity to rethink the relationship between the content and thinking in our educational models. (p. 64)

In other words – we do not need to have students remember things. We need them to categorize and analyze things the internet can tell them. We need them to be able to customize information and learn to apply it to specific conditions. In order for them to be able to do these things, we must teach them how to do these things. Learning cannot occur under just our limited set of conditions. In order to help students learn what they need to know, thus being of extreme importance and value to them, we must educate them in ways that are conducive to their own learning.

Thanks for joining me for part two of this five part series. I look forward to hearing your comments, questions, reactions, and experiences. Join me again in 2 weeks when we’ll look at the first half of Part II: Designing 21st Century Courses. If you’d like to be reminded of future posts, be sure to subscribe by email, Facebook, or Twitter in the sidebar.


  1. Cory Budischak5 years ago

    Ernie, great series and thanks for distilling all of this great information! I wanted to give my two cents about the following quote:

    “Do you agree with Bowen when he says that we should focus less on content and more on critical thinking?”

    This is something I struggle with. What I have come up with is that content is important but critical thinking is crucial. This quote sums up my views:

    “There’s never been a better time to be a worker with special skills or the right education, because these people can use technology to create and capture value. However, there’s never been a worse time to be a worker with only ‘ordinary’ skills and abilities to offer, because computers, robots, and other digital technologies are acquiring these skills and abilities at an extraordinary rate.” -Erik Brynjolfsson, The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies

    So critical thinking is important, but also skills that will be helpful in the 21st century, not “ordinary” skills. One of the best guide of these vital skills is 21st century fluencies located here (

    1. Ernie Kulhanek5 years ago


      Thanks for the link. Of the six categories listed, “Solution fluency”, “Information fluency”, and “Collaboration fluency” are the concepts I think of most when I say “Critical Thinking”. (That was a lot of quotation marks.) Not that the other categories discussed aren’t important, they most assuredly are crucial (to use your word) to our students ability to thrive in the working environment they seek to enter.

      I think the ordinary skills Brynjolfsson is referring to are skills like locating information (Google), copying information (Xerox), and recalling information (Books). I tell my students all the time that I am beyond uninterested in their ability to memorize definitions of terms. Of course knowing the definition is important, but you could always look up that information. One can not look up the ability to apply the concept to a real world problem, even if the problem is just finding examples of logical fallacy in an argument, and using that information to evaluate the overall product. If a person is able to Analyze, Interpret, Evaluate, etc. they will be that worker with special skills and the right education Brynjolfsson says are needed.

      Undoubtedly content knowledge is important. I wouldn’t want a great critical thinker with no background or training in medicine performing my surgery. However, I do think that those who are able to acquire these critical thinking skills (first) and apply them to a specific discipline (second) are the most valuable to employers.

      Thanks again for sharing the link on 21st century fluencies. It was well worth the read!

    2. aldrushler5 years ago


      Thanks for this. I agree that content is necessary, but critical thinking is crucial. I would like to investigate more techniques on how I can incorporate more critical thinking opportunities in the pre-tech courses. These courses almost exclusively focus on the development of basic skills. I do use collaborative groups, but the emphasis is still basic skills. Any thoughts?

      I have been using more projects in my business statistics class, where student must collect and analyze data. A class like this lends itself very easily to critical thinking. I hope to create more projects and also ask students to use technology and present their findings.

      Thanks again!

      1. Cory Budischak5 years ago


        I think one of the main challenges in a math class that focuses on basic skills is time. There are plenty of resources out there for problem based learning and other collaborative learning experiences in math, but I think the difficulty is finding the time to work this in to class. The way I have done it (not in math class) is to have the students watch videos and practice the easy skills outside of class and leave time in class to practice the more complicated skills and work collaboratively on a real world problem to drive the skills home. Do you think that method would work in pre-tech math or is there just too much to cover?

        1. aldrushler5 years ago

          I don’t know? I think it is worth a try. Next semester, all of our pre-tech classes will meet one hour face to face and one hour in the computer lab. We need to make better use of that face to face time. I think we should focus on the more difficult concepts, giving students time to practice and link the problems to the real world. One other difficulty is the self paced nature of the pre-tech courses. Some students fly through the material while others really need extra time. Any thoughts would be helpful. For my Precalculus class next semester, I will definitely expect them to master the ” easier” concepts outside of class so we have more time in class to work on more difficult problems and applications. Thanks for the thoughts.

          1. Cory Budischak5 years ago


            I use a variety of different energy concepts to try to hammer down the basic excel and math skills my students need. In a summer camp I taught, I had the students compete in a wind turbine competition where the students built a wind turbine and measured its power output at 3 different wind speeds. To win the competition, you had to compute your average power. I have never seen students be so excited to perform calculations!

            I would also recommend these three resources:

            1) Phet Math Simulations ( Many of these simulations also come with lesson resources and focus on inquiry based learning instead of direct instruction.

            2) This site’s lessons are password protected, but you can request a password. It has some really cool google earth files that present problem based learning and are integrated with video and external links to guide the students.

            3) Wolfram Demonstrations ( There are some really cool demonstrations here, not just for algebra but for every subject. There are some that play more like games to teach a concept as well. The only downside is you need a free player installed to view the files. I had IT install it on the computers in my area.

            I wonder if you could schedule some of these in class activities when a student (or preferably) a group of students pass a certain module in the course to circumvent the self paced issue. The logistics could be a little hard to work out, but you may be able to do it.

  2. aldrushler5 years ago


    Thanks for unpacking all of this for us. I have been meaning to get to this all week. In chapter 1, I was struck, and agree with, but struggle with the how-to in math class, by Bowen’s emphasis on the importance of critical thinking skills. The reason I struggle may be due to the content I teach. The traditional algebra sequence is created in a way that leads students to calculus. Most of the content in pre-algebra and elementary algebra, which is where 70% of our students begin, emphasizes basic skills. Science instructors and instructors of higher math classes demand that the students come to class with these basic skills. We spend a lot of time teaching basic skills. Bowen suggest that we must develop critical thinking skills in small group situations and that “application, integration, and personalization of content opens more minds more effectively.” (Page 21).

    I was also struck by the Bowen’s belief that the regional community college is in a unique situation to provide flexibility to meet the demands of student’s who have many things going on in their lives. I already see this in my day to day work at Del Tech. Students are pulled in so many directions that, I believe, we need to be positioned to offer effective hybrid and online options that develops both basic fluency and critical thinking skills.

    I really loved chapter 2, because I have tried to use social media in my classes (Google+) in the past. This chapter gave me a lot of great ideas. Bowen states, “Teaching is about making connections, and the first thing we must do is connect with our students.” (Page 30). Ernie, I loved your statement, “when we loathe to embrace the digital lifestyle of our students, we communicate to them that our courses lack value and relevancy to their lives.” This chapter gave me a renewed spirit to build a more effective online communication system using social media and other online avenues. I need to become better at connecting with the students both in face to face situations and online. I believe students will work harder if they feel more connected. This is difficult to do at Del Tech when students do not reside on campus, but we need to improve this area.

    Chapter 3 was also interesting. It made me think of the days when I would play Mario Brothers on NES all day long! I was the first in my neighborhood to beat that game!

    Bowen states, “we can almost certainly improve learning by offering more choices for preclass first exposure.” (Page 55) I thought of giving the students options for preparing for class, reading the chapter, watching a video, or listening to a podcast. This would require a lot of upfront work?

    In all, I have been enjoying this book. I look forward to other comments.

    1. Ish Stabosz5 years ago

      Al, you point out the incredible amount of upfront work that customization requires. Imagine trying to create videos, podcasts, differentiated assignments, and so on for every lesson. It would be nearly impossible for any one instructor to do well. I think the solution might be combining forces.

      For example, after being introduced to PowToon (, I thought it would be really cool to create a bunch of 2-3 minute PowToons about the most common grammatical errors, so that I could just give students a link on their rough drafts (I have them submit electronically). The work of creating these would be immense, but I’ve been thinking about recruiting several instructors so that we could split up the workload. Even if I only had 4 other people buy in to the idea, if we each committed to creating two PowToons per semester, then by the end of the year we’d have 20 videos, which could probably be enough to cover all the most serious and common writing errors.

      1. aldrushler5 years ago

        Ish, I came across a Google profile from the English dept. at the Owens campus.

        They have created brief tutorials all placed in a single location that can be used by anyone. This may help accomplish what you are talking about as well.

      2. Ernie Kulhanek5 years ago

        I think the PowToon idea is great. I know of at least one English instructor that is interested in helping you out.

  3. Ric Baker5 years ago

    Great post, once again. It is also very useful to me to read the great comments from instructors, and the interaction with the OP. It was hilarious to me how Ernie anticipated my “yeah, but…” thoughts. I was thinking just that: “Yeah, it is true that one can find quality online content for free, BUT it doesn’t come with the credentials of a diploma.” That is true and what brings students into the college setting, but only for now. Who is to say that this will remain the case? Until now, companies have hired credentialed graduates because it has generally been true that those credentials equated to a better hire… but that could change, and that is a sobering thought. I hear tell that vanguard companies like Google have already hired uncredentialed employees who can prove that they have the skills to do the jobs. That should be scary to colleges and universities, but it doesn’t need to be if we stop focusing on the credentials and start focusing on the critical thinking.

    And Ernie, it sounds like the class you teach has a pretty good book if its table of contents mirrors the skills necessary for critical thinking. Haha!

    1. Ernie Kulhanek5 years ago

      Ric –

      Those “yeah, but…” statements were definitely floating around my brain as I initially read!

      You are absolutely correct when you say that colleges should be scared about big companies’ willingness to take on the right talent, regardless of credentials. (Your statement actually reminded me of this brief article:

      And yes, the book I mentioned is very useful! (

    2. Ish Stabosz5 years ago

      This has been something that has been on my mind a lot lately. I was just reading an article about a study that Google did on it’s hiring practices. They basically found that GPA, test scores, and even interviews were not predictors of success in their company. Their VP of People Operations talks about the fact that school is a fake environment, and that success in school only predicts the ability to succeed in school, not in other environments.

      It makes sense when you think of it on a practical level. You’ve got a class with so many measurable objectives. You create assessments to measures those objectives. But there is no mechanism in place to assess transfer of the objectives to situations other than our assignments.

      What would things need to look like for this to happen? How would assignments and evaluations as we know them need to change?

  4. Pingback:An Online Book Club: Teaching Naked by José Bowen (Part 1 of 5) | Forward Thinking

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